Ancient History Encyclopedia. Shapur II or Sapor II, 310–79, king of Persia (310–79), of the Sassanid, or Sassanian, dynasty. Shapur I quickly lost any gains he had made and retreated back to his own borders. "The Great Inscription of Shapur I [A.D. 241-272]," in 28 pdf pages, W. B. Henning's celebrated article from Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, Vol. Shapur I learned the lessons his father taught well and used them effectively against his own enemies, most notably Rome. Dashkov SB The kings of kings are Sasanids. According to Shapur I’s inscriptions, Philip also agreed to Rome becoming a tributary, but this claim has been challenged. In 309 one of his brothers was killed by nobles of the Empire while the other was blinded, this left Shapur as the sole successor to the Empire. According to the stories of Marcellinus, Shapur often personally participated in the campaigns. A freelance writer and former part-time Professor of Philosophy at Marist College, New York, Joshua J. Written by Joshua J. Jump to: navigation, search. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Some Arab tribes were forcibly deported to the territory of the Sassanid Empire. Some people may answer this question by saying that the medieval cities had severe hygiene problems and were flooded with rats. Zoroastrian Alter with Two Attendants.-Pahlavi script-"The Fire of Shapur" According to classical sources, Shapur II launched this campaign against the Romans in order to conquer territories belonging to his ancestors. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Shapur II `the Great' (Shah) of PERSIA (Schapur Shahpur Sapor; SASSANID); (his 70-year reign is the longest ever of any West Asian monarch) Born: abt. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Shapur I replied that Odaenathus was not his equal and, far from thinking they could be allies, the Roman governor should look forward to becoming Shapur I’s vassal. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. The Persians besieged Amida and 73 days later took her. Bahram II and Narseh. During the seventy years of Shapur’s rule, he had to cross arms with almost all the significant Roman emperors of Constantine’s house. The reason for this was because Shapur lightly brought his hordes to the border, and the Emperor, having learned about this, preferred to observe peace. Mark, Joshua J. Shapur the Great (309-379) Hormizd II (302-309), the son and successor of Narses, married a Kushan princess to maintain peace on his eastern frontier. The indiscipline of his own soldiers engaged in robbing the corpses of the fallen Persian soldiers prevented him from immediately seizing the Persian capital. Shapur II 'The Great' From Rodovid EN. In 359, the war between the Persians and the Romans continued. https://www.ancient.eu/Shapur_I/. Ardashir was a skilled military leader who not only defeated the Parthian king Artabanus IV (r. 213-224 CE) in numerous battles but finally killed him and brought down the Parthian Empire, replacing it with his own. The cave of Shapur contains two different sectors. He had at his command a troop of Bedouin soldiers, who knew the land as well as the Sasanid army, and his own Syrian troops were fully acclimated to the climate of the region, unlike those under Gordian III or Valerian who had been deployed from Rome. On the eastern border of the Roman Empire, the city of Palmyra in Syria was governed by a man named Odaenathus who seems to have considered Shapur I a better bet to advance his fortunes than any of the emperors of Rome. He was the posthumous son of Hormuz II and therefore was born king. Pahlavi script- "The Mazda Worshiper. Following the spectacular reign of Shapur I, the Sassanians were led by a series of fairly ineffectual monarchs who struggled – and failed – to measure up his successes or those of his father (and founder of the empire), Ardashir I (r. 224-240 CE). Shapur was unable to resume the offensive; he even lost Armenia again. The Armenians were unable to repel the invasion. Shapur I’s son, Hormizd I (r. 270-271 CE) succeeded him but ruled only a year before he was replaced by his brother Bahram I (r. 271-274 CE) who was almost completely controlled by the magi (priestly class) and, under their influence, reversed the policy of religi… Odaenathus was insulted and, claiming he was mobilizing his forces to free Valerian from the Sasanids, marched against Shapur I. In 309 one of his brothers was killed by nobles of the Empire while the other was blinded, this left Shapur as the sole successor to the Empire. Here we list some of the biggest misconceptions that people had about European knights and crusdaers during the medieval period. Although the Roman writers claim that Shapur I was defeated in battle by the emperor Alexander Severus, all the Romans really did was halt Shapur I’s advance. Shapur II 'The Great' Sassanid King Of was born in 0309. Perikhanyan AG The Iranian society and law in the Parthian and Sassanian periods. Central Asian tribes had taken advantage of his minority to regain much of their former territory, then held by Persia. In 374, the Roman Emperor Valent ordered the murder of the Pope, who pursued an independent policy, and began to gather a Persian campaign, which, however did not take place. The invasion of the nomadic tribes of Central Asia forced Shapur II to turn his attention to the East. high relief low relief. Along with his principal wife, Azadokht Shahbanu (Shahbanu a title meaning"King's Lady"), Shapur I founded the center of learning and first teaching hospital Gundeshapur which would become the greatest intellectual center of its time and the model for later hospitals and universities. During these military operations, the son of King Grumbath died. Artabanus IV then met Ardashir in battle personally and was defeated both times; the second time he was killed. Shapur I saw himself as a leader of the forces of light and comported himself accordingly by encouraging the peaceful practice of all religions in his realm and devoting his scribes to the translation and revision of religious and philosophical works. There is no evidence of a loss of Sasanian territory to the Romans nor any decisive Roman victories of note. The reign of Shapur I is regularly praised by most ancient writers as exemplifying that of a noble king and formidable warrior. The longest reigning Sasanian monarch, he reigned from 309 to 379. This is confirmed by Persian inscriptions that mention the stability of the eastern border in the time of Shapur II. Shapur II (Middle Persian: 𐭱𐭧𐭯𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭩‎ Šābuhr; New Persian: شاپور‎, Šāpur, 309 – 379), also known as Shapur II the Great, was the tenth Sasanian King of Kings (Shahanshah) of Iran. The rise of the Sassanids and their struggle with Rome had an impact on Iberia. The Armenian king – Tyrant, trying to conduct an independent policy, maneuvering between the Persians and the Romans, was treacherously captured by Shapur II and blinded. In 364, Shapur once again threw his army into Armenia. Shapur I had at least two brothers but seems to have been the favorite of his father from an early age. To keep the Arabs from planning further raids, Shapur II built a defensive system, which was called the “wall of the Arabs.” This wall, apparently, was not far from the city of Hira. He was the posthumous son of Hormuz II and therefore was born king. In 363, the new Roman emperor Julian launched a counter-offensive against the Persians. Sector A encompasses the entrance area of the cave and has five wide man-made terraces. A counter attack from the Romans occurred, but after a while, the Emperor Constantius II died on November 3, 361. Shapur I was the son of Ardashir and the second ruler of the Demonic Sassanid Empire.Born out of pure evil, he was far more violent, aggressive and destructive than his father or any of his succesors and attack the Roman Empire when it lays in it's weakest point.His notorious deeds include capturing Valerian, who would be tortured and later flayed alive to sate his bloodlust. Ardashir was growing tired of rule and warfare and so made Shapur I his co-regent at this time, c. 240 CE; when he died later that year or in early 241 CE, Shapur I assumed the traditional Persian title of the monarchy, the King of Kings. The exclusively bloody wars of Shapur II with Rome for Armenia and Mesopotamia were perhaps the central event for Middle Eastern history of the IV century AD. When Ardashir died c. 241 CE, Shapur I assumed the traditional Persian title of the monarchy, the King of Kings. Mark, J. J. Under the terms of this treaty, five controversial areas on the border, fifteen fortresses and three strategically important cities departed for Iran. Returning to campaign against the Romans in Mesopotamia, he was checked by the emperor Gordian III (r. 238-244 CE), only 17 years old at the time. He sent Shapur I an offer of alliance, which was rebuffed. Despite such activity of Shapur II, the war did not bring any particular results to either side. He is the Grandson of Narseh and the Great grandson of Shapur I the Great. Although Shapur I was an able administrator and ruler whose reign is recorded in glowing phrases by everyone except Roman writers, he thought of himself as a warrior-king first and tried to exemplify this ideal. Hormizd I in Battleby The Creative Assembly (Copyright). Illustration of Colossal Statue of Shapur I. Favst Buzand. The Birth of Shapur II., A.D. 309.—The father of Shapur the Great was Hormisdas II., who reigned from A.D. 301 to 309, and was noted for his activity in After a number of setbacks for the Roman forces, Gordian III was killed by his own troops, who then replaced him as emperor with a popular commander, Philip the Arab (r. 244-249 CE). Finally, most of the gold coins minted by Shapur II originate from eastern mints. The further the Roman army withdrew from the Roman border into Mesopotamia they were able to receive less resources and the Romans began to suffer from hunger. Antioch was one of the most important urban centers of ancient Rome, and its conquest could not go unchallenged. The Sasanid army then intensified the siege of the city, under the direction of Shapur I’s son Hormizd I, and Antioch fell. Severus’ assassination plunged Rome into the chaotic period known as the Crisis of the Third Century (235-284 CE) during which over 20 emperors would rise and fall in almost 50 years. The Persians first invaded northern Mesopotamia. He attacked the Hajjar, inhabited by the Arabic tribes. Amazing facts about the Roman Empire, including the naming of the colosseum, the taxing of urine, and the worst punishments that were handed out to criminals. He ruled in his 70-year life and was first introduced when Constantine named Hannibalianus ‘King of Kings’ (title of a Sasanian Emperor). Mark has lived in Greece and Germany and traveled through Egypt. Philip understood he needed to extricate himself from the war with Shapur I to deal with the many other challenges facing Rome. Shapur I. Cite This Work Shapur I as he may have appeared during his campaigns against the Roman armies in the 3rd century AD. Shapur I did not consider the “forces of darkness” worthy of negotiation. Sculptures that decorated buildings came in two styles. 309 Died: abt. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, UK, Iran & Iranian Art & Civilisation & Archaeology & Anthropolgy & Society& Race& History & Culture , Iranian Tehran Persian Iranian History web site, news culture, music … The Romans, relying on their powerful defensive system of fortresses, prevented the development of the Persian offensive in this region. Shapur I The Great King Shah of Persia (240 -272 AD) AR Drachm 3.79g x 24.5mm Obv. The dating of his reign is disputed, but it is generally agreed that he ruled from 240 to 270, with his father Ardashir I as co-regent till the death of the latter in 242. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The new emperor was Jovian. In the course of his wars with Rome, Shapur I proved himself a clever and unpredictable adversary. Many played chess, polo, or an early form of tennis” (242). During the years 338-345 the Persian troops made several trips to Armenia. History of the Sword Throughout Antiquity, The Medieval Cog Ship and Its Use in History, The Largest European Medieval Castle You Probably Never Head Of. pronouncekiwi - … Shapur I’s victory over Valerian was among his last. The conquest was accompanied by cruelty towards the captives and even the peaceful population, as well as by attempts to forcibly convert to Zoroastrianism. Â. History of Iran III – VII centuries As the former capital of the Persian Empire, Persep… While Ardashir was consolidating his power, the Parthian king of Armenia, Khosrau I, raised an army to oppose him and formed alliances with a number of powers, including the kingdom of Kushan and Rome. Shapur I maintained a stable and prosperous empire until his death when he was succeeded by Hormizd I who would continue his policies but was never as effective a monarch as his father had been. Shapur I was a popular monarch and was honored through inscriptions and, most famously, the Colossal Statue of Shapur I, located in the Shapur Cave in modern-day Iran. Thus, by the year 350 the war had reached a dead end. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Full Tree Descendants (Inventory) Lineage : Sassanid: Sex : Male Full name (at birth) Shapur II 'The Great… Then he crossed the Persian Gulf, reaching Al Ḵaá¹­á¹­, which is the coastal region of Bahrain and Qatar. Central Asian tribes had taken advantage of his minority to regain much of their former territory, then held by Persia. The city was plundered, most of the population was cut out, and the remaining residents were deported to the Kushan lands. 12 Dec 2020. Shapur II succeeded not only in repelling the eastern enemies, but also in attracting to the union against the Romans, the king of Grumbat khionites. During the war, virtually all significant cities were seriously affected, and the ancient Armenian civilization was dealt a death blow, from which it was never able to recover. Biggest Misconceptions About European Knights And Crusaders, 10 Shocking Facts About The Ancient Roman Empire. Illustration of Colossal Statue of Shapur Iby Unknown Artist (Public Domain) Ramesses the Great, the Egyptian Pharaoh who gave his empire the most land it ever would have! Blockly RC Ammianus Marcellinus on the Persian invasion of AD 359 Shapur the Great, the Sassanid ruler who brought Persia back to it's former glory with his tremendous victories against Rome! The Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork is a 13th-century Teutonic castle located near the town of Malbork, Poland. Ammianus Marcellinus. "Shapur I." Related Content Ardashir I and Shapur I also understood the importance of religious faith in unifying an empire or nation and so made their own, Zoroastrianism, the state religion. He held the distinction of being the first foreign ruler to capture a Roman emperor in battle (the emperor Valerian, r. 253-260 CE) and was doing well in his war of conquest against Rome until he made an enemy of the Roman governor of Syria, Odaenathus (died c. 267 CE), who defeated him in battle and drove him from Roman territory. Shapur had placed his son two times as king of Armenia, but the Armenians rebelled and drove him out. He was the son of Hormizd II (r. 302–309). He was as skilled in battle as he was in bureaucratic administration and won a number of victories against Rome after Alexander Severus was murdered by his own troops on campaign in Germania in 235 CE. He defeated the Arabs, and seized their land, and destroyed many Arab rulers, and pulled out a huge number of shoulders.”. Person:388846. According to legend, Shapur I used Valerian as a footstool he had brought out each time he wanted to mount his horse, and when the emperor died, he had his body stuffed with straw and put on display in the palace for visiting dignitaries. His reign is consistently praised by non-Roman scribes for all of these accomplishments, and he continues to be regarded as a King of Kings, with the same level of respect he knew while he lived, up to the present day. (The Great) title: between 309 and 379, King of Persia == 3 == Children Meanwhile, the Roman army was faced with a number of unforeseen difficulties, that increased over time. In addition, Muhammad al-Tabari mentions that Shapur II, among his construction projects, speaks of the founding of the cities of Sind and Sistan, which also confirms his dominance in this region. He was the son of Ardashir I (r. 224 - c. 240 CE), the founder of the empire, who made him his co-ruler and brought him on campaigns to learn the art of war. Dmitriev VA He kept a wary peace with Rome but never moved against it again. History. Sources say that when Shapur II reached the age of sixteen in 325 AD, he launched a campaign to tame the Arab tribes and ensure security on the borders of the empire. The name. Shapur I (r. 240-270 CE) is considered one of the greatest kings of the Sassanian Empire for expanding his realm, his policy of religious tolerance, building projects, and committing the Zoroastrian scriptures (Avesta) to writing. He is considered among the greatest Sassanian monarchs along with Shapur II (r. 309-379 CE), Kavad I (r. 488-496, 498-531 CE) and Kosrau I. This atmosphere of tolerance allowed for the development of one of the most influential religious faiths of the ancient world – Manichaeism – whose founder, Mani (216-274 CE), had a place at Shapur I’s court. ŠĀPUR I, second Sasanian king of kings (r. 239-70) and author of several rock-reliefs and the trilingual inscription on the walls of the so-called KaÊ¿ba-ye ZardoÅ¡t [Å KZ].. i. and advancing deep into Syria. After Papak’s death, Ardashir maintained control of Istakhr in defiance of Artabanus IV’s authority as king and requests to relinquish the region. Books Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. Shapur II 'The Great' Sassanid King Of 's father was Hormizd II Sassanid King Of PERSIA and his mother was Princess KABUL.His paternal grandfather was Narses I Sassanid King Of PERSIA .He was an only child. Barthold V. V. Iran. He was a brilliant administrator, instituted policies of religious tolerance, and encouraged the arts and culture. Jundi Shapur was built in what is now Iran sometime between the 400s and mid-500s A.D. We can only guess the dates, but we do know more about the school. Even so, Shapur I also recognized that diversity encouraged vitality and so, from early in his reign, adhered to a policy of religious tolerance, allowing Christians, Jews, and other faiths to practice their religion freely. In 529, Christians closed the school of Athens—the last link to the academies of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. During the Crisis of the Third Century, elevating a man to the supreme position of emperor of Rome was almost a death sentence, but this did not prevent ambitious men from continually vying for the throne. The cog is a type of ship that appeared in the medieval period in the 10th century and it was widely spread across the sea into the 12th century.