I have noticed however, that lots of Robinia's are looking a bit sorry for themselves this year. Purple Robe Locust botanical name is Robinia pseudoacacia, an improvement of the native Black Locust tree. Robinia's greatest influence on the environmental conditions in dry grasslands is through shading and nitrogen fixation, which is detrimental to endangered light-loving plants and invertebrates. Tree & Plant Care. They are both locust trees but Robinia is the honey locust – without thorns and gleditsia is the black locust which has thorns. I may be wrong in your case but I fear mine will be gone after this year. Barring any priority biodiversity-related objectives, robinia should preferably be managed with rotation periods and interventions geared to forest functions (production, recovery, protection) and the desired end-products (e.g. 3 - Typical robinia stands in the Canton of Ticino (Switzerland). What kind of soil is it planted in? A complete redesign of the city in the 19th century gave the ‘city of light’ its trademark wide avenues, with ample urban foliage to shade Parisians and tourists alike. Best pruned in the dormant season as this tree will 'bleed' when pruned in spring. Today they are being used as coppices. Symptoms of Plant Illness (please try NOT to diagnose your problems yourself): Na. Tree Robinia Know as “False ... Robinia pseudoacacia Frisia They are tolerant of any soils, dry sunny positions and pollution, but as their branches are brittle should be sheltered from strong winds. Insects, Diseases, or Other Plant Problems: It is susceptible to locust borer (often fatal) and locust leaf miner (browns foliage). It's a lovely small tree that is absolutely beautiful in the spring and early summer but about mid July it starts producing yellow leaves which fall. Please advise if we should take it out or prune it hard back. Robinia pseudoacacia HAB; Falsche Akazie, die frische Rinde der jungen Zweige. Bottom: Warmth-loving dry grasslands in the southeastern Czech Republic colonised by robinia – originating from adjacent old trees – via root suckers. I hope you can see from this pic. Oh no - I had read about that but assumed as it was in leaf it could be something else causing the leaf problem. This year it has sprouted leaves close to the trunk. 5 - Dry grasslands, like the one here in the central Czech Republic, are the ecosystems under the greatest threat from robinia. Veddet er meget skørt, særligt i de første 5-10 år. Early in the 17th century, the species was introduced to various European countries, where it gained favour first as an ornamental tree, and later as a timber tree. Since robinia seeds are heavy, their dispersal distance is relatively short. Is there a problem with the soil? There appears to be no cure. You must poison it carefully. AuthorsMarco Conedera, Michaela Vítková, Jiří Sádlo, Jan Pergl, Petr Pyšek, Editorial officeSwiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Towards site-specific management of invasive alien trees based on the assessment of their impacts: the case of, Using Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) for Energy or Valuable Timber Production. Robinia. This will aid in pushing infection, if any, out of the tree. "Pungently scented flowers"? Veddet er meget skørt, særligt i de første 5-10 år. When my robinia was younger, it was climbed by at least one bear cub (mama's footprints were in the mud at the base and she left gashes on the trunk), which knocked a branch off. The leaves are pinnate with 7–21 oval leaflets. Frequently an arborist or some other professional needs to be called in to take care of it. The first articles containing detailed recommendations on controlling the robinia were published in the early 1950s. If a site has none of the desired native tree species or if doing nothing is not an option for safety reasons (protection forest, wooded railway embankments, etc. I have a Twisted Baby Locust (Robinia Pseudoacacia Lace Lady) in my garden railroad. Apples. However, before you plant a golden robinia it is important to be aware that this tree is very prone to suckering. Can also be used for street planting or in parks and gardens. From an economic viewpoint, robinia wood is of particular interest. Robinia. Their dispersal over long distances is largely down to human activity, through planting, the unintentional transport of seeds and roots or the redistribution of soil. Rounded Shape. I won’t cut the tree out. Decisions about whether to encourage, tolerate, reduce or eradicate robinia should be site-specific. Nature of problem: Robinia tree, time to remove it, too close to house, lifting deck. A strikingly beautiful group of deciduous trees and shrubs, grown for their richly coloured foliage and fragrant pea like flowers. To Europe she came from 1623 … On dry sites, a dense layer of grass with a varying proportion of ruderal species often forms, whereas moderately moist sites are dominated by nitrophilous species. Locust borer is a serious pest of black locust. Photo: Michaela Vítková. Our Products Fruit Trees. ), individual robinia should deliberately be encouraged after coppicing so they can be used for advance planting for natural regeneration or for underplanting indigenous semi-shade-loving tree species. 5). Tree Problem. The properties that make robinia so attractive from the silvicultural point of view – its broad habitat range, rapid growth and abilities to resprout and fix nitrogen – are the selfsame characteristics that make the species problematic from the viewpoint of nature conservation and trigger conflicts. In intensively farmed agricultural areas and in urban environments, the risks of robinia spreading in an uncontrolled fashion are minimal. There was nothing left to fall off come Autumn. Fire Risk: This plant has a low flammability rating. Wet sites should be avoided. When possible try uploading a picture, so we can have a look. Top: Spontaneously colonised former vineyards (Cugnasco). "We don't stop playing because we grow old; we grow old because we stop playing." Although originally native to the Allegheny Mountains, it has escaped gardens and naturalized over time to cover much of the United States and southern Canada plus parts of Europe, Asia and South America. If you wait until the winter to prune the dead wood you wont be able to tell the difference between the dead wood and the dormant tree limb. Just have to find one now. The North American robinia (black locust) has many positive, but also many negative characteristics. Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL I will stop mulching it and watering it regularly. It is about 3 yrs old now and definitely didn't look like this last year. Photo:Michaela Vítková. Only after World War II did the species start to show its strong dispersal potential by conquering the ruins of bombed-out cities. The greatest threat of robinia becoming invasive is posed by vegetative reproduction following mechanical damage caused to roots or stems. : Der Gattungsname Robinia wurde nach Jean Robin, dem Gärtner Heinrichs IV. Dry, flakey bark with a canker-like appearance will show it is in fact the virus. These trees love poor, dry soils and do best when they are not pampered. Robinia already fructify in their seventh year, producing up to 12,000 seeds per square metre in pure stands. Photos: Michaela Vítková. foresters, conservationists, beekeepers and the general public). Almindelig robinie eller uægte akacie (Robinia pseudoacacia) er et stort, løvfældende træ med en åben og uregelmæssig vækstform. Then paint neat Roundup all over the cut surfaces. This wouldn't be a huge problem but in a garden railroad it makes for a huge mess! Another positive fact is that, by colonising structurally and species-poor industrial and agricultural areas, robinia form 'islands' of growing biodiversity, creating stepping stones for connecting valuable and endangered species. Fragrant white flowers in summer. In ruderal habitats damaged by storms or fire or in logging areas, robinia can potentially be highly invasive. After 12 months in the ground they have growth but it is very spindly and not lush at all. Jh. Mine has been fine for 9 years and, apart from losing some of its head in severe winds one winter, has always leafed up well. … Has Deciduous foliage. Fig 2 - Typical robinia stands in the Czech Republic. However where i pruned low dead branches last year i do have signs of leaves growing round the cuts. : Der Gattungsname Robinia wurde nach Jean Robin, dem Gärtner Heinrichs IV. A couple of years later I realised it was producing thorns – unlike my previous one. Instead, robinia should be monitored until their natural death. Robinia are ideal for a case study on the development of various approaches for dealing with invasive tree species because they have long been cultivated, were subsequently allowed to grow wild in various European ecosystems and thus qualify as an invasive species that is both useful and dangerous. Anw.-Geb. Dry, flakey bark with a canker-like appearance will show it is in fact the virus. Fig. Mid-Sized Ornamental Flowering Tree. Stress to the tree which causes the top part to die can also lead to … Often they grow in abandoned plantations, now forming old, open stands, often with twisted and crooked stems up to roughly 10 m tall. Possible disease problems include canker, powdery mildew, leaf spots, wood rots and verticillium wilt. Robinia pseudoacacia, commonly called black locust, is medium sized, suckering, deciduous tree that typically grows to 30-50’ (less frequently to 80’) tall. But if you have to get a plumber in every time your drainage blocks then DO NOT plant this tree. 5). Where the use of chemical agents is permitted, the most efficient method involves felling/stripping away a stripe of bark and subsequently applying herbicides to the cut surface. That, or another bear, climbed the tree two years later, ripping a big branch off, leaving an ugly wound. History: Bred by Hillier nursery in Hampshire about 1930. Used widely as a street tree Robinia pseudoacacia or the Mop Top Robinia is a deciduous tree with attractive green foliage is fast growing and withstands poor soils and poor air quality. Foliage: Yellow or green pinnate leaves. Fig. Twisty Baby locust trees are easily transplanted and tolerate a variety of conditions. Histor. Removing robinia from valuable habitats is arduous work. There, large-scale eradication of robinia is the only solution. From bleeding canker to honey fungus, Bunny Guinness looks at some of the most obvious signs that trees could be diseased or suffering. I can do a lot of these sort of repairs myself and I don’t mind the work associated with having such a beautiful tree. Excellent growing and wood properties make Robinia pseudoacacia the ideal tree for outdoor use, or short rotation biomass energy plantations. It is susceptible to locust borer (often fatal) and locust leaf miner (browns foliage). Some reports suggest that the leaves tend to lose their leaflets but the leaf rib remains on the tree. Robinia pseudoacacia 'Frisia' is a popular yellow-leaved tree, widely grown in many gardens and public spaces. Growth Rate: 24 to 36 Inches per Year. TIA. This wouldn't be a huge problem but in a garden railroad it makes for a huge mess! In this how to video Martin Fish from Garden News explains how and when to prune dead wood from Robinia 'Frisia'. However this year it's looking just like the OP's 3yr old so I reckon I may have to cut it down come autumn and find another golden leaved tree as mine is planted in a woodland corner with some purple leaved trees and shrubs for contrast. Type of Plant (if known): 10 metre Robinia, Chinese lantern tree, thorny. Provided that robinia do not grow in residential areas near sparse forest, nature reserves or other special biotopes, generally they do not pose a problem. If the desired native tree species is already growing on the site or has good propagation prospects, no action should be taken to interfere with robinia, because this would only encourage the growth of coppice shoots. There is no reason not to commercially exploit robinia in these areas. At least your is in leaf but it may be the beginnings of the illness. Robinia between 30 and 40 years old are used for timber production. Robinia pseudoacacia, commonly known in its native territory as black locust, is a medium-sized hardwood deciduous tree, belonging to the tribe Robinieae.It is endemic to a few small areas of the United States, but it has been widely planted and naturalized elsewhere in temperate North America, Europe, Southern Africa and Asia and is considered an invasive species in some areas. Robinia pseudoacacia HAB; Falsche Akazie, die frische Rinde der jungen Zweige. Trees that are prone to silver leaf disease should be pruned from April to July when there are no disease spores on the wind, and the sap of the tree is rising (pushing out) rather than falling (pulling in). Robinia inermis ‘Moptop’ is a small grafted tree to about five meter tall with a width of four meters. Robinia. Mop top robinia problem Showing 1-6 of 6 messages. Robinia pseudoacacia T. Sitzia, A. Cierjacks, D. de Rigo, G. Caudullo Robinia pseudoacacia L., commonly known as black locust, is a tree native to North America and is one of the most important and widespread broadleaved alien trees in Europe. They hate wet soils so I would stop mulching. Robinia / False Acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) The black locust is a tree that originally native to the Atlantic Nordam erika is. Sensitive ecosystems such as dry grasslands, lowland meadows, rocky outcrops and sparse, dry forest (e.g. Bottom: Robinia floodplain forests in Bellinzona planted as part of major river correction work. 6 - Robinia generally do not cause problems in residential settings if they do not grow near sensitive areas. Height: 30 - 40 feet. The flowers are white or pink, in usually pendulous racemes.Many species have thorny shoots, and several have sticky hairs on the shoots. 1 - Robinia in the forest. The Robinia. Furthermore, late frosts can damage young shoots and cause crooked stems. Genus Robinia are vigorous suckering trees and shrubs, sometimes thorny, with pinnate leaves and racemes of pea-type flowers in early summer, sometimes followed by seed pods Details R. pseudoacacia is a fast-growing, spreading tree to 25m tall with deeply furrowed rough bark and spines formed from stipules on twigs and suckers. Top: Robinia stands planted In the early 20th century to reduce wind erosion on the Elbe plain in the central Czech Republic. posts, honey). Seasons of Interest: Leaves: Bloom: Spring Fruit/Seed/Nut: Fall. Almindelig robinie eller uægte akacie (Robinia pseudoacacia) er et stort, løvfældende træ med en åben og uregelmæssig vækstform. Make sure to wear protective gloves and long sleeved clothing when pruning False Acacia trees. They do have fresh growth visible, but they do not appear to have matured much from when they were first planted. Robinia pseudoacacia can be pruned and kept at shrub size by cutting them to the ground every 2-3 years. They are tolerant of salt, heat pollution, and most soil including dry and sandy soils.A tough tree this locust might be, but it is still susceptible to a number of pests such as locust borers and leaf miners.. Twisty Baby locust can become a bit unkempt looking at times. Some European countries, like Italy, Slovakia and Slovenia have a long-standing tradition (dating back to at least the 19th century) of robinia cultivation for the production of vineyard poles and wine barrels. But if you have to get a plumber in every time your drainage blocks then DO NOT plant this tree. Vítková, M.; Conedera, M.; Sádlo, J.; Pergl, J.; Pyšek, P. (2018): Gefährlich und nützlich zugleich: Strategien zum Management der invasiven Robinie. Robinia pseudoacacia 'Frisia' is currectly suffering from a countrywide disease./virus. Height: 30 - 40 feet. Has Deciduous foliage. I have to say, my tree has performed a miracle since I posted and in the last few weeks has perked up and is now looking amazing! Root suckers enables robinia to advance swiftly into such dry grasslands. und Ludwigs XIII., benannt, da dieser den Baum Anfang des 17. Robinia × ambigua 'Purple Robe' Robinia pseudoacacia 'Purple Robe' Tree Characteristics. Their seeds remain viable for longer than 10 years, though the germination rate is rather low. There is currently no generally recommended eradication procedure. Once robinia gain a foothold, it is hard to control and eradicate them because they form subterranean root intergrowth between individual trees, so removing individual stems does not have any effect. QUESTION: to avoid suckers, do we poison tree before removal or poison stump afterwards? They are tolerant of salt, heat pollution, and most soil including dry and sandy soils.A tough tree this locust might be, but it is still susceptible to a number of pests such as locust borers and leaf miners.. Twisty Baby locust can become a bit unkempt looking at times. Growth Rate: 24 to 36 Inches per Year. Some trees can bleed sap if pruned at the wrong time. This is a fast-growing tree which has a broadly columnar structure and a bushy habit. Family: Papilionaceae or Leguminosae (Fabaceae in the USA) Botanical Name: Robinia Common Names: false acacia, rose acacia, black locust. ROBINIA Tropical Splash™ Add to wishlist. Surrounding land that is regularly farmed (e.g. Have the leaf buds been damaged by frost? In such areas, the aim should be to find management options that exploit the species' positive characteristics and minimises its negative impact. Fig. I believe they tolerate poor soils but not sure if this is the problem. I planted a robinia which got damaged whilst I was away from home and asked for it to be replaced. Asked July 18, 2018, 8:20 PM EDT. Before leaf fall the colour develops into a deep orange-yellow which makes a fantastic autumnal focal point. It is planted in quite poor soil but has been enriched and fed/mulched regularly. Lilac-pink, Wisteria like, pendulous and fragrant blooms are borne in late spring. We like the tree but he wants us to get it … fields, gorges, rocky hills) surrounded by agricultural land. Hasn't been damaged afaik and not been pruned yet as is a young tree. 5 - Dry grasslands, like the one here in the central Czech Republic, are the ecosystems under the greatest threat from robinia. False Acacia Frisia trees do not require regular pruning. Tree Robinia Know as “False ... Robinia pseudoacacia Frisia They are tolerant of any soils, dry sunny positions and pollution, but as their branches are brittle should be sheltered from strong winds. Robinia pseudoacacia 'Frisia' problems. Histor. A strikingly beautiful group of deciduous trees and shrubs, grown for their richly coloured foliage and fragrant pea like flowers. But wherever robinia spontaneously start to gain a foothold in a forest, their further spread needs to be controlled as far as possible by regulating their exposure to light. Later, it also colonised numerous marginal expanses of agricultural land that had been left uncultivated during the post-war socio-economic turnaround. This robinia needs a lot of maintenance. I won’t cut the tree out. Provided that robinia do not grow in residential areas near sparse forest, nature reserves or other special biotopes, generally they do not pose a problem. This is an important finding, because where robinia occur in mixed forest and the species' further spread is undesirable, keeping the stand contained is crucial for avoiding the species' uncontrolled spread (seed dispersal and root suckers). Jh. The tree has a beautiful rounded figure with a solitary tall truck. Almost anaemic looking. Moreover, efforts to restore the original plant community are rarely successful because of irreversible changes to the ecosystem with regard to soil properties, the microclimate and light conditions. Honma H, Shimizu S (1980) Tests for killing Robinia pseudoacacia L. trees. I've got my eye on a http://apps.rhs.org.uk/plantselector/plant?plantid=3475 which I've seen grown as a small tree in a garden I visited in Charleroi. Exchanging pure stands of robinia for native tree species is extremely arduous. Twisty Baby Locust Care. Skuddene på unge træer er tornede med "tvillingetorne" ved hvert bladar. Longevity 50 to 150 years. Robinia (Robinia pseudoacacia) are native to the southeastern United States. Genus Robinia are vigorous suckering trees and shrubs, sometimes thorny, with pinnate leaves and racemes of pea-type flowers in early summer, sometimes followed by seed pods Details R. pseudoacacia is a fast-growing, spreading tree to 25m tall with deeply furrowed rough bark and spines formed from stipules on twigs and suckers. Has the tree ever been pruned? Centre: Stands planted in San Antonino to secure the embankment of the Gotthard railway. Trees that are prone to silver leaf disease should be pruned from April to July when there are no disease spores on the wind, and the sap of the tree is rising (pushing out) rather than falling (pulling in). We fixed that up by bolting a board onto it. Width: 20 - 30 feet. Although originally native to the Allegheny Mountains, it has escaped gardens and naturalized over time to cover much of the United States and southern Canada plus parts of Europe, Asia and South America. Hardy, drought resistant and suitable for most soils. Width: 20 - 30 feet. Deciduous. Mid-Sized Ornamental Flowering Tree. I have a Robinia Frisia tree which is usually very beautiful by now but the leaves have emerged and they are tiny, miniature versions of how they should be! Photos: Marco Conedera (WSL). Purple Robe Locust botanical name is Robinia pseudoacacia, an improvement of the native Black Locust tree. Because it grows quickly, 30-50 ‘ high at maturity and up to 30’ wide, when broken branches are left hanging on to the tree, it is not easy to cut off. Any tree that can sprout suckers from its roots at a considerable distance from the parent plant may cause problems, both where it grows and in adjacent properties. dry pine forests or thermophilic and acidophilous oak stands) are under the most pressure. My own eighteen year old 20ft had awful die back and I've had to reduce it's height by half. A complete redesign of the city in the 19th century gave the ‘city of light’ its trademark wide avenues, with ample urban foliage to shade Parisians and tourists alike. Often people pull up the suckers, believing them to be seedlings, but this action is counter-productive because it usually stimulates more suckers to emerge. Please check if you haven't planted your Robinia 'Frisia' too deep. Once established, this tree is super hardy and drought tolerant with a brisk growth rate of 2 or 3 feet of growth each year. Potenzen Globuli (Streukügelchen) Dilution (flüssig) D HAB 2018: Robinia pseudoacacia D1: Globuli: Robinia pseudoacacia D2: Globuli: Robinia pseudoacacia D3: Globuli: Dilution: Hi Beth, A Robinia suckering is a nightmare. Problems arise when robinia stands border dry grasslands, which are the ecosystems under the greatest threat from robinia (Fig. Excellent, Hard-Wooded Street Tree. Mop Top Robinia – Plant Profile and Landscaping Uses. Chop around the trunk with an axe to scallop out the bark. A Ramèl 18 The upper most roots should only be a inch under the soil at most. 4 - Exchanging pure stands of robinia for native tree species is extremely arduous. Jpn Bull Niigata Prefect For Exp Stn 23:35–43 Google Scholar. Potenzen Globuli (Streukügelchen) Dilution (flüssig) D HAB 2018: Robinia pseudoacacia D1: Globuli: Robinia pseudoacacia D2: Globuli: Robinia pseudoacacia D3: Globuli Stammen er ofte delt i flere topskud, og hovedgrenene er udspærrede, tykke og kun svagt forgrenede. Will grow to approx 5m, often used under power lines. Trees that are prone to silver leaf disease should be pruned from April to July when there are no disease spores on the wind, and the sap of the tree is rising (pushing out) rather than falling (pulling in). However, if the roots are disturbed or damaged, vigorous suckering starts. Log in or register to join the conversation. It's a lovely small tree that is absolutely beautiful in the spring and early summer but about mid July it starts producing yellow leaves which fall. Fire Risk: This plant has a low flammability rating. A combination of mechanical and chemical processes has proven successful, though the use of chemical agents near water, in forests and in nature reserves is prohibited in Switzerland. Erect or Spreading with a High Canopy. Anw.-Geb. Today, the specialist literature is ambivalent, simultaneously describing robinia as both an extremely useful and a highly invasive and thus undesirable tree species. The wood is … CH - 6594 Cadenazzo In open areas, robinia are mostly found in very warm, arid sites with poor soil quality (e.g. Robinia × ambigua 'Purple Robe' Robinia pseudoacacia 'Purple Robe' Tree Characteristics. The most usually grown varieties are:- Robinia pseudoacacia “Frisia” with bright golden-yellow pinnate leaves which turn butter yellow in autumn. This tree is a thornless robinia with an upright growth habit. That, or another bear, climbed the tree two years later, ripping a big branch off, leaving an ugly wound. Disease, pests, and problems. Has the bark been damaged in any way? I can do a lot of these sort of repairs myself and I don’t mind the work associated with having such a beautiful tree. I have a Paulownia tomentosa in a pot to replace it, but it will be a loss for the UK's second most best selling tree. Hmm, this is a new one on me. b) Robinia on agricultural land and dry grasslands. Robinia pseudoacacia 'Frisia' roe-BIN-ee-ah soo-dah-KAY-see-ah Audio This large, fast-growing tree has droopy leaves that stay sunny yellow from spring until frost, spiny shoots, and fragrant white flowers in late spring and early summer on pendent racemes. Robinia / False Acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) The black locust is a tree that originally native to the Atlantic Nordam erika is. Any tips for what I should do if that is the problem? Excellent, Hard-Wooded Street Tree. It takes 3-5 weeks to work. Originally, as a naturalised tree species, robinia had no major negative impact on ecosystems in Central Europe. Rounded Shape. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Forstwesen, 169 (2), 77-85. doi: 10.3188/szf.2018.0077, Marco Conedera Fig. Robinia pseudoacacia 'Frisia' is a popular yellow-leaved tree, widely grown in many gardens and public spaces. Iliev N, Iliev I, Park Y (2005) Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) in Bulgaria. Twisty Baby Locust Care. Add to wishlist. - George Bernard Shaw, http://apps.rhs.org.uk/plantselector/plant?plantid=3475. I too am suffering a problem with mine, i seem to get less and less leaves each year and have a number of branches with no leaves on at all. Species trees are sometimes considered to be somewhat weedy. und Ludwigs XIII., benannt, da dieser den Baum Anfang des 17. Robinia 'Frisia' is known to be hardy, so frost damage doesn't seem very likely. Robinia frisia limbs are prone to dying, that is why it is important to prune them properly. If the aim is to change the tree species, a different approach dependent on the initial situation is recommended. Today, it has become part of ecosystems and the cultural landscape in many places, so neither free and unlimited cultivation nor widespread active control measures make sense. The Oldest Tree in Paris – The Robinia Tree of Square René Viviani Widely renowned as one of the most beautiful cities in the world, Paris has a lot going for it. The Robinia. : Erkrankungen des Magen-Darm-Traktes, bei Obstipation, Hyperacidität und Gastrointestinalgeschwüren. Its leaves are dark green as well as the branches and trunks have an excellent textured bark. The 10 most common problems with trees. From bleeding canker to honey fungus, Bunny Guinness looks at some of the most obvious signs that trees could be diseased or suffering. The Oldest Tree in Paris – The Robinia Tree of Square René Viviani Widely renowned as one of the most beautiful cities in the world, Paris has a lot going for it. Contrary to the popular belief that robinia lower biodiversity, recent findings show that, at least where birds are concerned, more species may be found in robinia than in oak stands. When dealing with controversial tree species like robinia, it is very important to define clear management principles that enable potential to be tapped, but at the same time minimise the risks involved.