New Haven: Yale University Press. In 1984, after the Union Carbide disaster at its plant in Bhopal, India, which killed thousands and injured several hundred thousand people, the chemical industry adopted a voluntary code called Responsible Care. New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Second Treatise: An Essay Concerning the True End of Civil Government. Beyond the borders of the United States some took the financial crisis to be a crisis of the legitimacy of capitalism, and at least some analysed the ethical justifiability of finance capitalism. The second branch of the ethics-in-business strand, i.e., the religious, also has a long history, and similarly has filtered down and influenced general thinking about ethics in business. The initiative has grown to more than 8,000 participants, including over 5,300 businesses in 130 countries around the world, and embraces six UN agencies. Conferences began to take place more and more often on various topics and issues in business ethics. 15 The overall result was the incorporation of ethics in some form as part of the structure of many companies. Other centers of business ethics started appearing at various universities, and journals dedicated to the field emerged. The modern idea of business ethics as a field is relatively new, but how to ethically conduct business has been widely debated since bartering and trading first arose. In November 1974, the first ever business ethics conference was held at the University of Kansas. New Revised Standard Version. History The phrase “business ethics” has been used in a number of different ways. The term ‘business ethics’ as found in the earlier literature referred to the ethics-in-business meaning of the term. But they were largely ad hoc and even those in the forefront of the academic move in this direction admitted that the courses lacked a cohesive basis or approach. The history of business ethics in the United States can be viewed as the intersection of three intertwined strands. Instead of having a code of ethics like many companies do today, people centuries ago would still use ethical guidelines like the Ten Commandments or Aristotle’s economic relations philosophies. Treviño, Linda K. and Katherine A. Nelson. The moral norms that are violated apply to all sections of society. At the same time, in various ways and venues companies came under increasing pressure from NGOs and the general public to become good “corporate citizens” or to engage in Triple Bottom Line (economic, environmental and social) accounting and in other ways to turn their attention to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) with respect to the communities within which they operated. The known history of pure ethics or ethics (moral) theories begin with ancient Greek philosophers (Sophists, Socrates, Socratic schools, Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, Stoics) and after recovered by early English positivists has been the main topic of discussions in the Medieval times in Europe. During Vietnam, Americans became hypercritical of ongoing government and business operations. But the third strand of business ethics—the incorporation of ethics, or at least the trappings of ethics, into businesses in the United States on a large scale—was given the greatest impetus by government legislation. For a reply to his position, see Hoffman and Moore (1962). The first strand De George discusses is the one that can be dated back the furthest. Karl Marx’s critique of capitalism never took serious hold in the United States, and unlike in many European countries, no democratic socialist political party ever developed there. He outlined what is known as a “preferential option for the poor.” Although the Catholic Bishops of the United States also came out with a letter on the economy (Economic Justice for All), its impact on the business community and the general public has not been significant. The field of business ethics, in its current form, grew out ofresearch that moral and political philosophers did in the 1970s and1980s. New York, London: Macmillan, Collier. It is partially conservative and partially radical or critical. However, business ethics is a lot more complicated. It was only in late 1990’s that the international business ethics came to the fore especially so after the economic developments that occurred on a global scale. The questions were answered in different ways, some reducing the actions of corporations to the actions of the individuals who made up a corporation, some making the necessary accommodations in the use of moral terms to apply appropriately to corporate actions. In 2011 the UN Human Rights Council endorsed a set of Guiding Principles for Business and Human Rights which sets a global standard with respect to human rights and business activity. But the battles are fought in national and regional political venues. Bible. Laborem exercens. The Exxon, WorldCom and other scandals at the turn of the century led to a spate of books and articles on corporate governance, and the financial crisis of 2007–2008 led some to look into the ethics of the financial industry. Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. A form of ethics is business ethics. He believes each strand represents a different yet equally important perspective on business ethics. John Paul II, Pope. In the late 1970s Norman Bowie, under a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, chaired a committee to develop a model curriculum for business-ethics courses. For more on stakeholder analysis, see Freeman (1984), and Goodpaster (1991). The philosophers came in the 1970s and 1980s and intruded on territory that those in social issues of business had in some sense staked out as their own. It concerns issues of the internal structures of business that tend to reinforce and promote ethical activity by employees or structures that tend to promote unethical activity (characterized by the injunction: “Get this done by the deadline and I don’t care how you do it.”). The relationship of social issues in business or social issues in management and business ethics is a contentious one, with social-issues advocates claiming business ethics as a part of their field and those in philosophical business ethics claiming social issues as the empirical portion of their field. I mentioned two branches—the secular and the religious, and in both of them we find a parallel history of the development of ethics as it applies to business. The association provided a network and a forum for members to exchange ideas and strategies on ethics and on legal compliance. Freeman argues that corporations have obligations to all of its stakeholders—its shareholders, its employees, its suppliers, its customers, and all others who have a stake in the corporation. With large industry, especially the enormous growth of chemical petroleum- based industries, pollution on a large scale became a problem. Each of these in turn can be divided into at least two related branches. 2006. The extractive industries pose special ethical problems, as do the chemical industries, and many others. 1979. His critique still has followers today. But it did not raise its voice against slavery, for instance, and St. Paul even cautions slaves to obey their masters (Colossians, 3: 22). De George, Richard T. 2003. Business ethics is the use of ethical values to guide business behaviour. 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